Are Illegal Immigrants Really Taking Jobs Away From American Workers?

job interview When the Supreme Court voted to uphold the "Legal Arizona Workers Act" (LAWA) on May 25, the ability for states to revoke business licenses for firms hiring illegal immigrants was protected. (LAWA is distinct from Arizona SB 1070, which empowered law enforcement officers in Arizona to engage in racial profiling.)

Reaction to the decision among likely voters was strongly in favor: A Rasmussen poll conducted on May 27 and 28 found that 61 percent of Americans support a law in their state that would shut down companies that knowingly and repeatedly hire illegal immigrants.

And activists who advocate for restrictive immigration policies welcomed the ruling. "There's a downward effect on wages," says Jessica Vaughn, the director of policy studies for the D.C.-based Center for Immigration Studies, referring to the introduction of undocumented workers in the market. "There's so many occupations where wages have just been stagnant for many years, or even declined, like in construction, building trades industry and custodial work. Of course, it's not just one thing. You can't control competition from China. But immigration policy is something that we can control as a nation."

Support for the penalization of companies hiring illegal workers can be chalked up to a variety of motivations. But the view that it protects American jobs has been embraced by many, including politicians like Rep. Lamar Smith (R-Texas), the chair of the House Judiciary Committee and a member of the Reclaim American Jobs Caucus. "Not only is this law constitutional, it is common sense. American jobs should be preserved for Americans and legal workers," he said of the high court's 5-3 ruling. "Today, there are 7 million individuals working in the United States illegally. E-Verify will help turn off the jobs magnet that encourages illegal immigration."

The debate over whether there is any correlation between immigration policy and the fortunes of American workers is in fact an open one. And according to Pia Orrenius, the senior economist for the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, the major question among most economists is actually why the impact of the nation's estimated 12 million illegal immigrants on the labor market is so small.

Given that the topic of the economic impact of immigration is so politically charged, scores of studies have been ordered on the subject. The widely-shared consensus holds that for every 10 percent increase in the share of foreign-born workers in a specific area there's less than 1 percent change in the average wages of legal residents, including for low-skilled workers, says Orrenius. (Wages are used as the economic metric for employment in the U.S.)

Two leading papers that present the view of a minimal negative economic impact are: "Immigration and National Wages: Clarifying the Theory and Empirics," published in 2008 by academics Gianmarco Ottoviano and Giovanni Peri; and the landmark, "The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration," published in 1997 by James P. Smith and Barry Edmontson, working under the aegis of the 1990 Immigration Act.

These economists caution against extrapolating from anecdotes of immigrants coming to a specific town and taking jobs. Smith and Edmontson do concede, though, that "the losers may be the less-skilled domestic workers who compete with immigrants and whose wages will fall." But they go on to say: "To the extent that immigrants specialize in activities that otherwise would not have existed domestically, immigration can be beneficial for all domestic residents. In this case, there is little substitution of new immigrant workers for domestic workers."

The argument that an infusion of foreign workers represents a new and non-competing workforce, and therefore poses little threat to the American worker, is buttressed by other economic analysis. Among them is the related concept that as immigrants carry out jobs that natives wouldn't want, or even wouldn't exist if it weren't done by a foreigner, the native-born American is freed up to specialize. And that complementary model improves overall efficiency. Finally, the so-called "immigration surplus" holds that the US economy must benefit from a net gain in goods and services because wages earned by immigrants tend to be lower than the cost equivalent of what they produce.

Should companies be shut down for hiring illegal immigrants?
Yes1 (33.3%)
No1 (33.3%)
Undecided1 (33.3%)

But activists who do see a negative impact from the country's illegal immigrant population point out that the creation of a whole new jobs market is the very point.

"There are jobs that provide no benefits, no retirement," says Jim Gilchrist, the president of the anti-illegal-immigration group, the Minuteman Project. "As long as the laws are not enforced, cheap wages with no benefits will continue.... You take that out, the low wage element out, and you'll see American citizens applying for jobs like landscaping, shoveling concrete, because wage rates will go up, and they'll come with retirement benefits and unions."

Such a hypothesis assumes that those jobs could sustain such costs, and people wouldn't simply choose to carry out those tasks on their own. These activists, however, also point to a rival set of economic data that suggest an even greater wage impact from immigration. This school, led by Harvard economist George Borjas, takes issue with comparing immigration statistics between cities, as the other reports do. The gripe centers on a failure to account for the ongoing movement of people between cities. Instead, Borjas studies the topic from a national perspective, and uses economic models for comparative analysis. (Borjas was approached for this article, and didn't return a request for an interview.) And whereas the first school sees a wage impact of around 1 percent, Borjas' reports see the figure closer to 3 percent for every 10 percent increase in population. The rate gets as high as 8 percent for low-skilled workers.

In addition to Arizona, E-Verify is only fully required for all statewide employers in Mississippi. But the program is on the books in a variety of partial iterations in 18 states, and is poised to gain momentum in the wake of the decision. Just two weeks after the Arizona decision, the Roberts court ordered the 3rd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals to review its overturning of a Hazelton, PA, act that mandated the denial of business permits for firms hiring illegal immigrants. But as proponents of the program continue to link E-Verify to the fortunes of the American labor force, Orrenius says that there's one matter about which the economists have no argument.

"Everyone kind of agrees in the long run you should have a growing economy and capital should flow in and these wage effects eventually wash out," she says.

Next: Blue Collar vs. White Collar: Where Are Wages Recovering Fastest?

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Yes and are very rude too

April 03 2014 at 11:54 AM Report abuse rate up rate down Reply

Developed countries versus non developed countries, lets do all a favor and get the low income workers from undeveloped countries a chance to become a helping hand and be able to developed what they can learn in their own countries with american fortune

April 02 2014 at 2:14 AM Report abuse +1 rate up rate down Reply

If you can't write an article making a political argument in a single word Microsoft page, then you don't need to write it. I can justify wasting 2 minutes to read this BS, but you are asking too much when it takes 5. Good day.

September 28 2013 at 11:08 AM Report abuse rate up rate down Reply
Shia C

Honey, they don't care about America. They just want to get over. You knew when you came here you were illegal;now you have babies and what? I pay taxes to school, feed and give medical assistance? I pay taxes, insurance etc. When does this end? You volunteered to come here, now your caught; go home. That's where the money goes.

August 13 2013 at 11:10 AM Report abuse rate up rate down Reply
Shia C

You are illegal. Being illegal means you committed fraud (credit cards, drivers license, real estate, bank loans etc.) Most don't are about America, their money and 2nd homes are in Mexico. I face a crime, so should you.

August 13 2013 at 11:02 AM Report abuse rate up rate down Reply

I heard that many constuction workers cannot get a job, because it illegals are given the jobs. I am sure,but I think the illegals are not trained to do the jobs. So, isn't that alittle dangerous? Don't the men have to go to school for it??? Even with building the bridges, how do we know

May 31 2013 at 5:16 PM Report abuse rate up rate down Reply

My neighborhood has had an influx of Koreans.....when they open businesses they hire there

August 07 2012 at 11:19 AM Report abuse rate up rate down Reply
William Boyle

Job opportunities for U.S. born citizens with/without degrees from Colleges are becoming more unavailable in this age. Employers are hiring non-U.S. born employees for several reasons. First- They are willing to work without making complaints about safety issues on job sites or matters involving non-payment of over time, etc in fear they will be fired & reported. Secondly - They will work at sub. or at minimum wage pay. I saw a news report 2 months ago where they were interviewing people out in front at an un-employment office on the South side of Chicago & there were several workers that were non-English speaking building a concrete street curb & one of the men being interviewed made a point of that & said 'that should be MY job!" . Correct me if I'm wrong, but I do believe you have to have a basic understanding of English in order to obtain a work permit here in the States.

July 07 2012 at 9:29 PM Report abuse rate up rate down Reply

Put the work issue aside for a moment. Every person in this country is required to fallow the law whether we agree with it or not. Does equality under the law sound familiar to anybody? Regardless of gender, ethnicity, religion, socio-economic status, etc. the same laws apply. That includes individuals from south of the border. When a person has an illegal immigration status in the US they are breaking the law! WHEN THEY REMAIN HERE & WORK IN THE US THEY ARE BREAKING MANY LAWS (failure to report income i think might be one for starts) It doesn't matter where they cam from! If we start exempting certain groups from particular laws based on ethnicity we fail to honor the fundamental principle or law of equality for all.
That being said, of course they take jobs from Americans! In the NJ/NY area the day laborers working illegally demand a minimum of $10.00 an hour, many are now getting $12.00 TAX FREE & WITHOUT THE DEDUCTIONS AN AMERICAN CITIZEN MUST PAY BY LAW. SO TO SAY AN AMERICAN WON'T DO THE WORK FOR THE SAME PAY IS TOTALLY WRONG. TO SAY, AMERICANS WANT ALL THESE PERKS LIKE UNIONS GIVE, THAT AMERICANS DON'T WANT TO DO HARD LABOR JOBS FOR THE SAME PAY IS TOTALLY FALSE! An American employee earning $10.00per in NY will receive only $7.60 an hour $1,316 monthly ( without deducting for medical insurance or benefits). An ILLEGAL IMMIGRANT EARNING $10.00an hour WILL RECEIVE $404.00 MORE THAN THE AMERICAN WORKER per month $1,720montly (calculations based on a 40 hour work week). THAT'S $5,656 MORE PER YEAR! Same INITIAL pay, same work, men are generally hired to do landscaping, construction, handyman, general labor. Women often make equal or more doing domestic work such as, housekeeping or child care.
American workers are put at an immediate disadvantage when competing WITH ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS for these jobs. By law we must have taxes,social security, unemployment....deducted or file as an independent contractor and pay even more! Not only are the illegal day laborers working illegally, they aren't even paying the taxes required by law for all workers, citizens or not. Employers ALSO benefit financially by hiring illegal immigrants. When having an employee "on the books" it is required by law that the employer matches social security & medicare deductions. THIS IS NOT A PERK ITS THE LAW FOR ALL EMPLOYERS & PART OF OUR SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM!
ONCE AGAIN THE HARD WORKING (& MOST ARE HARD WORKING) AMERICAN BLUE COLOR WORKER, BLACK, WHITE OR BEIGE LOSES AGAIN. Remember all the American nonunion laborers, builders, painters, landscapers...that are out of work due to the housing/banking crisis. The ones I know that have been out of work would happily work for $10.00-12.00 per hour. THEY TOO NEED TO FEED THEIR FAMILIES!

September 28 2011 at 11:37 AM Report abuse rate up rate down Reply

Also if you believe most Mexican's here can't speak english, you're the fool. Most Mexican's from Mexico speak good english. Trust me I know.

June 08 2011 at 10:58 PM Report abuse -1 rate up rate down Reply
1 reply to kemarie's comment

Not, many in my town, kemarie..I wish the lady from Mexico, my neighbor, downstairs, could speak English! I have told her husband to teach her...but she doesn't even know how to is a shame....he is responsible for her, I know if it were my husband, he would make sure I can read and write and if I am in Mexico with him...we would both speak the language....thank you :)

May 31 2013 at 5:20 PM Report abuse +1 rate up rate down Reply

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